Neuropsychological Diagnostic Accuracy: Factors That Might Lead to a Wrong Diagnosis and How to Avoid Them

Neuropsychological Diagnostic Accuracy: Factors That Might Lead to a Wrong Diagnosis and How to Avoid Them

Contenido principal del artículo

Jeniffer Ortega Marin, Dra.

Resumen

Los falsos positivos y los falsos negativos en la evaluación neuropsicológica pueden ocurrir debido a diferentes razones y pueden tener consecuencias graves tales como la administración de un tratamiento innecesario que puede causar efectos adversos y la incapacidad de proporcionar un tratamiento oportuno a los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es importante saber qué tanto podemos confiar en el diagnóstico. Los resultados de las pruebas son insuficientes para este fin. Como punto de partida, debemos establecer hipótesis sobre la condición del paciente utilizando la información que hemos recopilado de varias fuentes. Adicionalmente, es necesario utilizar información sobre las propiedades psicométricas de las pruebas, los valores predictivos y las tasas base de los trastornos neurocognitivos y de las puntuaciones bajas. En ausencia de esta información, la interpretación de los resultados debe ser cautelosa. En este artículo se discuten varias estrategias que pueden contribuir a mejorar la precisión diagnóstica.

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Biografía del autor/a (VER)

Jeniffer Ortega Marin, Dra., Universidad El Bosque

Jeniffer Ortega es Doctora en Psicología y Magíster en Neuropsicología Clínica. Actualmente, es docente de la Facultad de Psicología en la Universidad El Bosque y es miembro de la Science of Magic Association (scienceofmagicassoc.org). Ha investigado sobre errores de metacognición visual usando trucos de magia que explotan los fenómenos de ceguera por desatención y ceguera al cambio. A través de su sitio web Mental Illusions (www.mentalillusions.com) comparte ideas sobre cómo la magia puede ser utilizada para estudiar la mente y para promover el pensamiento crítico.

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