Escala de Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas: adaptación al ámbito educativo en una muestra de adolescentes argentinos.

Psychological Basical Needs Scale: adaptation to the educational field in a sample of Argentine adolescents.

Contenido principal del artículo

Fátima Soledad Schönfeld

Resumen

La Teoría de la Autodeterminación refiere a tres necesidades psicológicas básicas, presentes en el transcurso de la vida de un individuo: autonomía, competencia y relación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la adaptación al contexto educativo de la Escala de Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas de Deci y Ryan (2000) en población adolescente Argentina. La adaptación cobra relevancia debido a que no existe hasta el momento en Argentina una versión de la escala que permita evaluar dichas necesidades en estudiantes de nivel secundario. Para medir la validez de constructo de la nueva versión se realizó un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio evaluando la presencia de las dimensiones propuestas por los autores originales. Se utilizó el método de máxima verosimilitud, teniendo en cuenta el valor chi cuadrado, chi/gl, los índices CFI, GFI, AGFI, RMR y RMSEA. Para estudiar la validez convergente se realizó un análisis de correlación con la Utrecht-Work Compromiso Scale en su versión para estudiantes y con el rendimiento académico de los alumnos. Para evaluar la consistencia interna del instrumento se utilizó el coeficiente Omega. La muestra estuvo conformada por 313 estudiantes de nivel secundario, con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 16 años (M = 13.46; DT = 1.05). Los resultados del presente estudio aportan evidencias empíricas que avalan buenos niveles de validez y confiabilidad de la Escala de Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas en el contexto educacional y en la población adolescente. De este modo, las propiedades psicométricas de la versión adaptada del instrumento son aceptables.

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